What are the symptoms of cataracts?

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asked in Ophthalmology by IDA
What are the symptoms of cataracts?

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answered by VIVIAN
 
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4. Electrical cataracts
Sometimes in the eyes of cataract, its shape and blunt traumatic cataract similar. Most cases of turbidity still does not develop, there are cases of development speed, in a few weeks or even days of all the lens opacity.
Clinical manifestations of metabolic cataracts:
1. occurs in the elderly, and senile cataract similar, but the higher incidence, occurred earlier, progress faster, easy to mature, this type more common.
2. True diabetes cataract, occurs in patients with diabetes who are not well controlled by blood sugar. Mostly developed for the eyes, rapid development, and even in a few days, weeks or months to develop into turbid, completely turbid; at the beginning of the capsule before and after the typical white spots or snowflakes cloudy, rapid expansion to complete Cataract; often accompanied by refractive changes, elevated blood sugar, the performance of myopia; blood sugar decreased, the performance of hyperopia.
Drug and toxic cataract clinical manifestations:
Toxic cataract is characterized by the involvement of the eyes, the occurrence of time from the poisoning time is longer, up to several months to several years, once occurred, progress is quite rapid.
The shape of toxic cataract is close to endocrine cataract and complicated cataract. At the beginning of the anterior capsule under the gray dust and point-like turbidity, sometimes turbidity showed stripes or fluffy. Turbidity can be dispersed or the formation of flower-shaped, which may also have color crystallization, posterior capsule under the cortex is sometimes ring turbidity. Turbid was granular, metallic luster, mirror reflective method to check the visible color reflective. Cortical deep with irregular beads gray opacity, after the occurrence of turbidity progress quickly, the first violation of the cortex, and then reached the nuclear, and even all the lens was milky white, and finally was beads gray turbidity. Which is also common water crack to form a dark space, cataract in a few days to several weeks to mature. In the mature process, because the lens absorbs water faster, prone to secondary glaucoma. Corticosteroid cataract is characterized by: ① part of the lens opacity in the posterior part of the cortex, just in the posterior capsule of the lens, and sometimes significantly violations of the posterior capsule, or irregularly to the front of the cortical invasion. ② shape of the boundary is usually clear, occasionally surrounded by a light gray halo around. This subtle structure is composed of yellow and white crystals of opacity, and are the same size of the vacuoles separated to form a granular aggregation, occasionally linear stripes or a number of larger vacuoles.
Clinical manifestations of radioactive cataract:
1. cataracts at the beginning of the time there is no sign, but sometimes there will be fixed black spots; 2. eye cataract main symptoms are vision loss and blurred vision, and the gradual increase in vision problems; Reading or watching TV when the eyes are prone to fatigue, and the visual field of the object deformation or distortion of the situation; see things may have glare or visual objects were double shadow, this situation, especially in the day more obvious; 4. With the increase in the degree of eye lens turbidity, there will be diplopia or multi-view of the situation, eye vision is gradually lost, cataracts will appear more serious blurred vision, fear of light, see the object color is dark or yellow And so on, such a situation if not get a good treatment, let its development, and finally will lead to gradually reduced vision, or even blind.
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answered by VIVIAN
Common symptoms: blurred vision, pupil whitening, macular edema, eye muscle dysfunction or disappearance
Single or bilateral, the incidence of two eyes may have, progressive vision loss, due to lens cortical opacity caused by different parts of the lens refractive power may have glare, or monocular diplopia, increased myopia, cataract symptoms often due to type Different, different course of the disease vary, the following several cases the most common:
1. blurred vision: cataract mainly caused by lens opacity, the patient first manifested as blurred vision, due to the different position of the lens opacity can be light and heavy. Congenital cataract mainly in the poor vision can not be corrected.
2. Shadow: At first happened to find a fixed front of the shadow, can not erase. With the blurred vision to increase the shadow but not obvious, but the vision decreased significantly.
3. Myopia: the patient found the original reading glasses lighter or not with reading glasses. This is due to crystal hardening of crystalline myopia.
4. Monocular multi-view: is due to the lens caused by irregular astigmatism. Especially in the darker pupil relative scattered, such as night to see the moon when the street is easy to find.
5. Outdoor sun vision is poor, the room is relatively dark place: seen in nuclear cataracts. As the pupil of the light down, the line of sight is blocked.
Clinical manifestations of congenital cataract:
1. symptoms of infants and young children cataract main symptoms of white pupil disease. Neonatal pupil after birth with white reflection called white pupil disease, one of the most common is congenital cataract, incomplete cataract is often low vision, strabismus, nystagmus and other abnormal treatment. 2. signs (1) visual function tests, varying degrees of vision decreased, but should have a light response. (2) the crystal was in various forms of turbidity, with total cataract, nuclear cataract, around the nuclear cataract, the former very posterior cataract, corolla cataract, suture cataract, point cataract and so on. (3) can be secondary strabismus, nystagmus. (4) can be complicated by other common eye abnormalities, such as small eye cornea, no iris, permanent hyperplasia of the original vitreous (PHPV), retinal choroidal lesions.
Clinical manifestations of senile cataracts:
The occurrence and development of senile cataract as a slow process, in clinical, can be divided into four periods. Each period of the symptoms and performance vary, four stages are as follows:
Beginning period: turbidity began to occur in the peripheral part of the crystal superficial cortical, was spoke-like turbidity, the central part of the crystal relative to maintain a transparent, so no significant visual impairment, visual acuity can be normal or close to normal, generally no Eye drops, eye pain and other symptoms of discomfort. During this period, the patient is often unaware or aware of the occurrence of cataracts, most of them are found in the eye examination when the cataract was found. This period of progress is very slow, which can last for several years.
Immature period: also known as expansion period. Patients consciously visual fatigue, depending on the material hazy, may have glare, color circle and multi-view of the symptoms, under the light pupil narrowing, vision can be slightly improved. With the progressive development of crystal turbidity, vision is also correspondingly diminishing, vision gradually reduced to only 0.1 or 0.1 below, until the work of difficulties, the action is extremely inconvenient. This period may be due to excessive expansion of the crystal, blocking the anterior chamber angle and increased intraocular pressure complications, known as the crystal expansion glaucoma.
Maturity: cloudy development to the entire crystal, vision is extremely diminished, can only identify the number of fingers or hand swing or not, the basic loss of self-care ability.
Over maturity: the crystal further dehydration, the volume decreases, the surface of the capsule shrinkage, and thinning, the crystal within the cortex liquefaction, as milky milky chili, crystal nucleus sinking. This period may occur crystal solubility of glaucoma, increased symptoms of intraocular pressure.
Clinical manifestations of complicated cataract:
1. Occasional lesions caused by concurrent cataract
(1) iridocyclitis is the most common cause of concurrent cataract, typical turbidity can occur in the posterior part of the lens, but also common in the posterior iris adhesion. Disease progress is slow, such as local inflammation to be controlled, turbidity can be long-term stability without development. In the repeated episodes of chronic cases, in addition to extensive iris adhesion, often combined with thickening or shrinkage of the lens capsule, sometimes in the pupil area to form a pupil membrane closure, opacity began in the anterior capsule, To.
(2) heterochromatic iritis 70% of the occurrence of cataract, which is due to inflammation or sympathetic nervous disorder or degeneration caused by lens opacity first posterior cortex and the surrounding minutia, gradually spread to the entire lens, the speed of development called other Iris ciliaryitis caused by cataract is fast.
(3) acute glaucoma of the anterior capsule under the border of the clear gray spots were dumbbells or irregular round, no progress, like scattered on the ground of lime pulp, a glaucoma spot. The spots are necrotic in the lens epithelium.
(4) absolute glaucoma due to high intraocular pressure, extensive intraocular degeneration and nutritional disorders, resulting in lens nucleus turbidity, slow development.
(5) glaucoma surgery will promote the formation of cataracts, is still a controversial issue, some people think that due to sudden reduction in intraocular pressure or nutritional disorders can occur after cataracts.
(6) severe corneal ulcer complicated by cataracts are the front pupil area turbidity, was conical, under the capsule. Infant corneal ulcer perforation, adult creeping corneal ulcers, can be caused by the dispersion of toxins and damage to the lens, or in the lens after the direct contact with the cornea caused.
(7) intraocular tumor toxicity products can lead to rapid disappearance of the lens opacity, ciliary melanoma compression of the lens, in the compression of local occurrence of turbidity.
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answered by VIVIAN
2. cataract caused by posterior segmental lesions
Posterior capsular opacification can be combined with any type of posterior uveitis. The development of cataracts depends to a large extent on the progression of ocular lesions. Typical concretely cataracts begin with polar capsules, with small turbinates and vesicles, densely clustered, forming a loose structure similar to honeycomb morphology, accompanied by chronic progression of slow eye disease. Can be limited to the latter part of the long-term.
Turbidity in the shaft area to the deep development of the cortex at the same time, along the lens fiber to the equatorial direction for radiation direction, the result of the formation of a typical rose, discoid or astigmatic morphology. At this time the slit lamp inspection can be found completely transparent cortex, lens nucleus and most of the posterior cortex, with the turbid layer between the clear boundaries of pale yellow, grayish yellow or multicolored reflective, honeycomb loose structure and not The regular distribution of the rules of the cataract constitutes the characteristic of the cataract.
Ocular degenerative diseases such as high myopia, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and intraocular tumors are also common causes of concurrent cataracts. These causes of concurrent cataract its morphological characteristics and the above described the same, but the course may be longer.
Clinical manifestations of traumatic cataract:
1. Bluntness or traumatic cataract
Sometimes blunt after a few months or even years after the formation of a typical cataract changes. Blunt traumatic cataract can occur alone, can also be combined with subluxation of the lens or dislocation. The earliest alteration is the posterior capsule opacity of the pupil area, which in turn forms a starlike appearance or chrysanthemum-like opacity similar to a cataract. In most cases, blunt traumatic cataracts can be combined with traumatic iridocyclitis, pupillary adhesions, in severe cases can also appear iris bulging and other secondary glaucoma performance.
2. cataract caused by perforation of the eye
If the capsule rupture wound is very small, the lens remains intact, only local turbidity occurs. After penetrating the wound, the lens cortex is long in the "bath" of aqueous humor and is continuously absorbed. When most of the final cortex is absorbed, then the front and rear wall attached to the formation of the so-called eyeball perforation caused by cataract.
3. Crystal rust, copper rusty
What is of particular interest is the long-term retention of copper and iron that is prone to oxidative reactions in the eye, producing so-called "lens copper rust" and "lens rust." The former lens opacity mostly sunflower-like appearance, copper green reflective; the latter as part of the entire ocular degeneration, lens opacity was yellow.
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