What are the causes of diabetes?

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asked in Others by OLGA
What are the causes of diabetes?

8 Answers

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answered by BROOKE
1. Pathogenic factors
The exact etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes are still not very clear, the cause of which is the joint participation of genetic and environmental factors. It is mainly due to the selective destruction of the immune mediated islet B cells.
(I) type 1 diabetes
1. genetic factors
Type 1 diabetes has a certain familial aggregation. There are reports that the parents have diabetes history. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in their children is 4% to 11%. The incidence of familial aggregation of type 1 diabetes among brothers and sisters is 6% to 11%, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the identical twins is less than 50%.
2. environmental factors
The occurrence of type 1 diabetes is often associated with or after infection. The common infection of the original mumps virus, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, measles virus, influenza virus, encephalitis virus, poliovirus, Coxsackie virus and Epstein-Barr virus, but the virus after infection, diabetes susceptibility or resistance may be determined by the first day.
(two) type 2 diabetes
The etiology of type 2 diabetes is not very clear. It is generally believed that it is strongly inherited or polygenic, and the environmental factors are obesity, lack of activity and aging. The main reason is insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin resistance usually precede insulin secretion, or insulin secretion is mainly accompanied by or without insulin resistance. Although type 2 diabetes has genetic heterogeneity, most patients with type 2 diabetes and fasting hyperglycemia are characterized by insulin resistance, insulin secretion disorders and liver glucose production.
Two. Pathophysiology of diabetes
(1) the natural pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
The first phase (genetic susceptibility: related to some HLA loci)
Phase second (initiating autoimmune reaction, islet B cell damage)
Phase third (immunological abnormalities: there are a variety of autoantibodies against B cells in the circulation, and the insulin secretion is still normal).
The fourth phase (the number of B cells in the islets is reduced, the function is decreasing, the blood sugar is raised, so that diabetes occurs).
Phase fifth (clinical diabetes: islet B cell remnants less than 10%, significant hyperglycemia with clinical symptoms)
The sixth phase (after several years or years of clinical diabetes mellitus, B cells were completely destroyed, insulin levels were extremely low, and the response to stimulation was lost. Many patients had various chronic complications.
(two) islet pathology of type 1 diabetes
(1) early pathological changes
As early as 1910, an acute islet inflammatory disease with lymphocytes and macrophages infiltrated in type 1 diabetic patients was recorded. Subsequently, it was reported that individuals with type 1 diabetes died 6 months later. The autopsy showed that the 2/3 of islet had such damage, and the survival of B cells was less than 10% of the total. But the patients with long course of disease had no lymphocytic infiltration. The local regeneration of islet B cells can be seen in patients with short course of type 1 diabetes. However, with the development of disease, local regeneration of B cells is more and more rare, and the regenerated B cells are also destroyed.
(2) late pathology
The autopsy of 1.5 to 34 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes showed that the weight of the pancreas decreased because of the atrophy of the exocrine tissue that accounted for 98% of the normal pancreas. Atrophy of exocrine glands may be due to the lack of high concentration of insulin through the perfusion of blood vessels to the pancreas itself. The high insulin concentration in the pancreas has its own nutritional function, which is not achieved by subcutaneous exogenous insulin therapy. The islets of type 1 diabetic patients are small and small, and the weight is less than normal or type 2 diabetic patients with 1/3, and B cells are almost completely deficient. Islets contain almost only alpha and sigma cells and PP cells located at the distal end of the pancreatic head. The number of alpha and sigma cells in each islet was normal or increased, and the total amount of alpha and sigma cells in the pancreas was in the normal range.
(three) pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
(the following 1-4 are the core causes)
Reduction of insulin secretion in 1. islet beta cells
The 2. generation of hepatic glycogen increased
3. decrease of glucose uptake in muscle
The 4. increase in lipolysis
The decrease of intestinal trypsin action in 5. gastrointestinal tract
Increase of pancreatic glucagon secretion in 6. islet alpha cells
Increased glucose reabsorption in 7. kidneys
8. brain neurotransmitter dysfunction
Three. Syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese Medicine
The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease are discussed in more detail in Chinese medicine. That was mainly due to the ferrite deficiency, weakness of five viscera, complex due to improper diet, overeatingfeigan, emotional disorders, resulting in excessive labor, kidney yin deficiency, lung and stomach heat; pathogenesis key Yin hot and yin deficiency, hot as the standard; the extension of disease course, sinister and Yang. Yin and yang asthenia; Yin deficiency, consumption of Tianjin burning liquid so that the blood viscosity, blood stagnation and blood stasis; sinister and Yang, Yang deficiency, blood stasis can also lead to yang.
(1) the deficiency of the body of the body
The cause of ferrite Yin are maternal fetal nutrient deficiency, excessive consumption, acquired metaplasia Yin viscera damage, Yin Conghua, imbalance between yin and yang relationship between the internal organs, and ultimately caused excessive hyperactivity, Yang Ying, the gasterexcessiveheat and polyorexia.
(two) diet, body fat, long overeating
Sweet taste, the transport function damage of spleen, stomach stagnation, Yin Yun heat dryness, consumption of Tianjin, the stomach Zaore, polyorexia aggravated. Because of the fat people phlegm, phlegm heat, can also wear the Yin, yin deficiency and metaplasia hot, hot will hurt the Yin fu. Such a vicious cycle has a disease of thirst.
(three) emotional disorders, liver qi stagnation
Because of the long-term emotional discomfort, stagnation of heat, dry Yin; or because of rage, resulting in the failure of the liver; blockage of Qi, can also heat dryness and tb-12 lung stomach yin, lead to lung and stomach heat, and thirsty to drink, polyorexia. The excessive heat and heat of the yin deficiency will inevitably lead to
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answered by BLANCA
1, genetic factors: diabetes has a family genetic susceptibility. But this heredity still needs the effect of external factors, such as obesity, reduced physical activity, irrational diet structure, virus infection and so on.
2, obesity: obesity is an important cause of diabetes. It is especially easy to cause type 2 diabetes. Especially those with abdominal obesity. The mechanism is mainly due to the obvious hyperinsulinism in obese individuals. Hyperinsulinism can decrease the affinity between insulin and its receptors, resulting in insulin resistance and insulin resistance. This requires islet beta cells to secrete and release more insulin, thus causing hyperinsulinemia. Such a vicious cycle of glucose metabolism disorder and beta cell insufficiency eventually leads to severe beta cell dysfunction, which leads to type 2 diabetes.
3, lack of activity: physical activity can increase the sensitivity of tissue to insulin, reduce body weight, improve metabolism, reduce insulin resistance, alleviate hyperinsulinemia and reduce cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the reduction of physical activity has become an important factor in the onset of type 2 diabetes.
4, diet structure: high fat diet can inhibit the metabolic rate to increase weight and obesity. Obesity has caused the perennial carnivores of type 2 diabetes, and the incidence of diabetes is significantly higher than that of the perennial vegetarians. It is mainly related to the high fat and protein heat in meat. Therefore, the diet should be diversified to keep the balance of nutrition and avoid overnutrition.
5, mental and neurologic factors: in the process of diabetes and development, the important role of mental and neurologic factors is recognized by Chinese and foreign scholars in recent years. Because mental stress, emotional excitement and psychological pressure can lead to a large increase in some stress hormones. These hormones are all hormones that increase blood sugar and are also antagonistic hormones to insulin. These hormones are released for a long time, which are bound to cause disorder of endocrine and metabolic regulation, cause hyperglycemia and lead to diabetes.
6, virus infection: some type I diabetic patients, is in the patient with the cold, mumps and other viral infection after the disease.
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answered by DESIREE
Usually the appearance of disease is closely related to people's life, and diabetes is the typical representative of this phenomenon. With the increase of working pressure of modern people and the quickening of pace of life, many people are suffering from diabetes. These living real cases must be noticed. In order to be able to prevent diabetes more comprehensively, we must know the cause of diabetes. Next, let mother net encyclopedia introduce the reasons of diabetes. 1, almost all diabetic patients with genetic factors are usually caused by genetic factors, especially those with family history of diabetes. If two of the couples are diabetic, half the chance of their birth is that they will suffer from diabetes. If one of the parents has diabetes, though the child may not get diabetes, but it will become a carrier of the diabetes gene, the prevalence of his child will be relatively large. 2, bad living habits and other factors besides genetic factors, the cause of diabetes is derived from patients' usual bad habits and some other life factors. For example, when young overwork leads to impaired, or congenital deficiency acquired out of balance, and obese people or prematurely senile, etc., in the excessive accumulation of fat, interference to heart, kidney and lungs, liver and vascular disorders. These factors cause the failure of the pancreas and the lack of insulin, which can produce the opportunity for diabetes.
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answered by PATTY
Type 1 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of them are autoimmune diseases, and the genetic and environmental factors are involved in the disease. Some external factors (such as virus infection, chemical toxicants and diet (premature contact with milk or cereal protein)) in genetically susceptible individuals, a series of activated T lymphocyte mediated autoimmune reaction, caused by selective beta cell destruction and failure, the body lack of insulin secretion was aggravating, resulting in diabetes. In recent years, it has been confirmed that type 1 diabetes also has insulin resistance, which also plays a role in the onset of type 1 diabetes and (or) accelerating the deterioration of the condition.
Type 2 diabetes, genetic factors and environmental factors (age, nutritional excess, modern lifestyle and lack of physical activity, the womb environment and stress, chemical poisons, etc.) Note: the two factors caused by obesity, especially central obesity, is closely related with the occurrence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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answered by DELLA
The main reason for diabetes is diabetes: the absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and the reduction of insulin sensitivity by target cells, resulting in disorders of sugar, fat, protein and water and electrolyte metabolism. Diabetes can be caused by factors such as heredity, mental stimulation, obesity, lack of nutrients, virus infection, chemical drugs, poisoning and so on. Diabetes itself is not frightening, and the horror of diabetes is caused by nearly 20 complications. So so far the medical community is still at a loss for it. We need to understand the cause of diabetes and cut off the cause from the root to avoid diabetes. 1, genetic factors are universally recognized. Diabetes is a hereditary disease. Genetic studies show that the incidence of diabetes is significantly different from that of non blood relatives in blood relatives. The former is 5 times higher than the latter. In the etiology of type I diabetes, the importance of genetic factors is 50%, while in type II diabetes, the importance is more than 90%. Therefore, the genetic factors causing type II diabetes are significantly higher than those of type I diabetes. 2, mental factors in the past ten years, and foreign scholars confirmed the mental factors in the occurrence and development of diabetes in the role of that with the spirit of the emotional tension, excitement and stress, will cause the secretion of elevated blood sugar hormone, such as growth hormone, noradrenaline, glucagon and adrenal cortical hormone. At present, 3 obesity diabetes that obesity is an important predisposing cause, about 60%-80% of adults with diabetes before the onset were obese, obesity and diabetes incidence rate was proportional to the degree, according to basic research materials: with the increase of age, physical activity gradually decreased, the proportion of human muscle and fat the change in. From 25 to 75 years old, muscle tissue was gradually reduced from 47% of body weight to 36%, while fat increased from 20% to 36%. This is one of the main reasons for the increase of diabetes in the elderly, especially obese and fat old people. 4, excessive intake of too much food and excessive nutrition in a long term can cause the potential low functioning insulin beta cells to overburden and induce diabetes. At home and abroad, the concept of "the richer, the more plump, the more diabetes" has been formed at home and abroad. In recent years, with the deepening of diabetes research and cognition, we have made new understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes from the perspectives of molecular biology, electron microscopy, immunology, physiology and biochemistry. 5. The incidence of type I diabetes is often associated with or after infection. After a virus infection, the susceptibility or resistance to diabetes may be determined by birth. Susceptibility may mean the sensitivity of B cells to a specific dose of a virus, or the tendency of autoimmune response to a self antigen released during B cell antigen or mild B cell damage. 6, chemical drugs of diabetes refers to islet beta cell function in drug or chemical substances caused by abnormal insulin secretion, lead to absolute and relative lack of, or reduction of target cell sensitivity to insulin, causes the sugar, protein and fat metabolism, and then reach a standard diabetes secondary diabetes mellitus. 7. Poisoning of toxic ketoacidosis is an acute complication of diabetes. Any factors caused by absolute or relative lack of insulin secretion, may cause ketoacidosis (DKA [] is one of the most common acute complications of diabetes, is a serious lack of insulin caused by high blood sugar, high blood ketone acidosis, a group of clinical syndrome. Such as insulin withdrawal or decrement too fast, such as stress state, such as surgery, trauma, fracture, delivery, anesthesia, pregnancy, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, hyperthyroidism, etc., all cause ketoacidosis.
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answered by MONA
There are many reasons, and there is a difference between type I and type II. Here I simply say that type I or type II diabetes has obvious genetic heterogeneity. There is a family tendency in diabetes, and 1/4 to 1/2 patients have a family history of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus has abnormal immune system. It causes autoimmune reaction after some viruses such as coxsackievirus, rubella virus and parotid virus, and destroys insulin beta cells. Obesity caused by excessive eating and physical activity is the most important environmental factor of type 2 diabetes. It is easy for individuals to have genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.
In fact, it can prevent a little. There is no absolute evidence that a habit or environment can induce illness, so the healthy diet principle should be observed in our daily diet.
Regular measurement of blood sugar in order to find asymptomatic diabetes as soon as possible. The blood glucose measurement should be included in the routine physical examination in the middle and old age. Even if a normal person is normal, it should be determined regularly. Anyone with diabetes clues can be identified and differentiated carefully, such as skin abnormalities, hypofunction, poor eyesight, polyuria and cataract, so as to diagnose early and win the early treatment.
Chinese medicine believes that the liver, lifting and adjusting the relationship between human receiver is poor, liver qi stagnation Qi Qi disorder, liver dysfunction, blood glucose and other substances with not clear Yang Qi Qi in the body and in the blood stasis, high blood sugar or subtle substance distribution disorder.
So usually recommend appropriate control in the diet, drinking green tea money Liu Yiren, help control blood sugar, the main bioactive components for flavonoids, polysaccharides, saponins with hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic function, also can reduce the probability of patients with bloated Adlay dampness, and when treatment is beneficial.
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answered by WHITNEY
How did diabetes cause it? Although the etiology and pathogenesis of primary diabetes have not yet been fully understood, there are at least two basic reasons for diabetes.
1, genetic factors: that is, diabetes is a genetic, genetic easy to get diabetes. For example, type 1 diabetes is inherited from the gene that the islets are vulnerable to virus damage and have autoimmune destruction. For type 2 diabetes, it is generally considered that this type is a multi gene genetic disease, which is genetically characterized by obesity, insulin resistance and insulin secretion.
2, day after day environmental factors: the prevention and control of diabetes is also a more noteworthy factor. Environmental factors that induce diabetes include excessive calorie intake, reduced activity, obesity, smoking, and excessive psychological stress. The long-term and common effect of the two factors of heredity and environment are easy to make people get diabetes. In recent years, dozens of authorities have reported that amylin deposition is the root cause of type 2 diabetes.
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answered by DOREEN
The causes of diabetes are:
1. bad habits and environment. Most young people now like Kentucky fast food, not like vegetables and fruits, and long eating habits may lead to high blood sugar.
2. air anion is the natural factors existing in the air, can effectively reduce the high blood sugar, but the environmental pollution caused by the air of negative oxygen ions, negative oxygen ion uptake in human, which is also an important cause of high blood sugar.
3. hyperglycemia caused by other diseases. There is a close relationship between coronary heart disease and hyperglycemia. So once the diagnosis is hyperglycemia, we should try to know what causes the hyperglycemia, so that we can do symptomatic treatment to prevent and treat hyperglycemia.
4. after eliminating the above causes of hyperglycemia, hyperglycemia is extremely likely to be an early symptom of diabetes. At present, the population of diabetes has become more and more young, and even children have diabetes. So, people with diabetes must know that high blood sugar should be treated early.
5. hereditary causes can also lead to hyperglycemia.
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