First, the cause of the disease
A large number of epidemiological studies on coronary atherosclerotic heart disease show that the following factors are closely related to the onset of coronary heart disease. These factors are called coronary heart disease predisposing factors (also known as risk factors).
This disease is often seen in people over 40 years of age. The occurrence of atherosclerosis may begin in children, and the incidence of coronary heart disease increases with age.
Males are more common, and the ratio of male and female incidence is about 2: 1. Since estrogen has an anti atherosclerotic effect, the incidence of women in the postmenopausal period increases rapidly.
3. family history
There is a family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and the incidence of coronary heart disease is increased.
4. individual types
Type A personality (aggressive and competitive) have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, mental stress is easy to disease. It may be related to the high concentration of catecholamines in the body for a long time.
It is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in smokers was 5 times higher than that of non smokers, and it was proportional to the amount of smoking. The carbon monoxide hemoglobin in the smoker's blood is increased, and the nicotine in the smoke reduces the blood vessels, causing the arterial wall to be anoxic and cause the arterial injury.
It is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. The patients with coronary heart disease in hypertension were 4 times as high as those of normal blood pressure, and 60% to 70% of the patients with coronary heart disease were suffering from hypertension. When the arterial pressure increases, the changes of shear stress and sidewall pressure can lead to intimal injury. At the same time, the increase of blood pressure leads to the infiltration of plasma lipids into the intimal cells, resulting in platelet aggregation and smooth muscle cell proliferation, and atherosclerosis.
Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >6.76mmol/L, low density lipoprotein cholesterol >4.42mmol/L) is 5 times higher than that of normal subjects (total cholesterol <5.2mmol/L). Recent studies have shown that hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. High density lipoprotein has protective effect on coronary heart disease, and its lower value is susceptible to coronary heart disease. The ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol is <0.15, which is a valuable predictor of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies have found that serum α - lipoprotein [Lp (α)] concentration (>0.3g/L) is also an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease.
It is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. The risk of coronary heart disease in diabetic patients is 2 times higher than that in normal persons. The risk of coronary heart disease in female diabetic patients is 3 times higher than that in male patients, and it is easy to cause heart failure, death and death. Glycosylated low density lipoprotein in blood is increased when hyperglycemia is high, so that the degradation and metabolism of low density lipoprotein receptor pathway are inhibited. At the same time, hyperglycemia also damages the intima of blood vessels, and diabetes is often accompanied by abnormal lipid metabolism. Therefore, diabetic patients are prone to coronary heart disease.
9. obesity and too little exercise
(1) standard weight (kg) = height (CM) -105 (or 110). 2. Body mass index = weight (kg) / (height m) 2. Obesity was said to be more than a standard weight of 20% or a body mass index >24. Obesity is not as important as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, but obesity can indirectly affect coronary heart disease by promoting the development of these three factors. Exercise can adjust and improve endothelial function, promote patients to establish the coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary heart disease, exercise less prone to obesity, so it should be fully aware of the urgency of the treatment of obesity and the importance of increasing the amount of exercise.
(1): a large number of long-term drinking alcohol damage function high spirits on the heart and blood vessels, liver and other organs, can lead to cirrhosis, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and moderate drinking; low degree wine colored (e.g. Wine) can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, because alcohol can increase high density lipoprotein concentration.
(2) oral contraceptives: long-term oral contraceptives can increase blood pressure, increase blood lipids and impaired glucose tolerance, while changing the clotting mechanism and increasing the chance of thrombosis.
(3) eating habits: eating high calorie, high animal fat, high cholesterol, high sugar diet is easy to suffer from coronary heart disease, and other changes in intake of trace elements.
Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and atherosclerosis is the component of blood cells, extracellular matrix, arterial wall (especially monocytes, platelets and LDL), the interaction of local hemodynamics, environmental and genetic factors results. Therefore, it should be noted that there is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, which is not equal to that of coronary heart disease.