1, abrupt onset or slow onset of leukemia, children and adolescents with abrupt onset. Common symptoms include fever, progressive anemia, significant bleeding tendency, or bone and joint pain. The slow onset of the disease is the majority of the elderly and some young patients, and the disease progresses gradually. Most of these patients are progressive fatigue, pale, tired, anxious, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, weight loss or fever of unknown origin. In addition, a few patients can be affected by convulsions, blindness, toothache, gingival swelling, pericardial effusion, and paraplegia of the lower extremities.
2, fever and infection
A, fever is one of the most common symptoms of leukemia. It can occur at different stages of the disease and has different degrees of fever and heat. The main reason is infection with fever, angina, stomatitis, perianal inflammatory diseases are most common, pneumonia, tonsillitis, gingivitis, perianal abscess is more common. The ear inflammation, enteritis, carbuncle, pyelonephritis and so on can also be seen, the severe infection can also occur septicaemia, sepsis and so on.
B, infected pathogens are more common in bacteria, and in the early stages of the disease, gram-positive cocci is the main type. Although the virus infection is rare but often more dangerous, the infection of cytomegalovirus, measles or chickenpox is easy to be complicated with pneumonia. It must be paid attention to.
3, bleeding and bleeding is also a common symptom of leukemia. The bleeding site can be covered by the whole body. The most common bleeding is skin, gingiva and nasal cavity, and there are also hemorrhage in the retina, ears, and internal organs, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Female menorrhagia is also more common and is the first symptom. The M3 and M5 subtypes of AML are more severe, especially in M3 patients, which are prone to diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC) and intracranial hemorrhage.
4, anemia can occur early, a small number of cases of refractory anemia diagnosed in the first few months or years after developed leukemia. Patients often have symptoms such as fatigue, paleness of face, palpitation, shortness of breath, swelling of the lower limbs and so on. Anemia is seen in all types of leukemia, but more of the elderly AML patients, many patients often with anemia as the first symptom.
5. Infiltration of leukemic cells
A, liver, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy
B, nervous system: major lesions are bleeding and leukaemia infiltration
C, bone and joint: bone and joint pain is one of the most important symptoms of leukemia, and ALL is common.
D, skin; can have specific and nonspecific skin lesions in two, the former is maculopapule, pustules, nodules, lumps, erythroderma, exfoliative dermatitis, more common in adult monocytic leukemia, the latter showed skin ecchymosis, spots etc..
E, oral cavity: gingival swelling, bleeding, leukemic infiltration is more common in AML-M5. Severe patients can be extremely hyperplastic, swelling like sea sponge, and burst on the surface.
F, heart: most of them are infiltration of myocardial leukemia, bleeding and epicardial hemorrhage, pericardial effusion, etc.
G, kidney: leukaemia with renal lesions up to 40%.
H, gastrointestinal system: nausea and vomiting, lack of appetite, abdominal distention, diarrhea, etc.
I, lung and pleura: it mainly infiltrates the alveolar wall and the pulmonary space, and also can infiltrate the bronchus, pleura, and the wall of the blood vessels.
J, the other: uterus, ovary, testis, prostate and so on can be infiltrated by white blood cells. Female patients often have vaginal bleeding and menstrual cycle disorders. A male patient may have a loss of sexual desire.
1, the clinical symptoms of sudden high fever, anemia or significant bleeding, aches and pain fatigue.
2, signs of skin bleeding spots, sternal tenderness, hepatosplenomegaly, lymph node.
A, hemogram leucocyte always obviously increase (or decrease), can appear primitive or naive cells.
B, bone marrow bone marrow nucleated red blood cells of total nucleated cells below 50%, the original cell is more than 30%, can be diagnosed as acute leukemia; bone marrow nucleated red blood cells is more than 50%, the original non erythroid cells accounted for the proportion of more than 30%, can be diagnosed as acute leukemia.
A, aplastic anemia;
B, myelodysplastic syndrome;
C, malignant histiocytic disease;
D, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura